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CIO views: High conviction ideas from Amundi Global Investment Committee
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Inflation was the big surprise in 2021. At the beginning of the year, the average US inflation forecast by economists for the end of 2021 was around 2%, while the latest reading in December came in at 7.0% YoY, the highest level since 1982.
The velocity of money (V) depends on P = the general price level, T = the total amount of goods and services produced and M = the total amount of money in circulation, and can be expressed by the formula V = PT/M.
On 2 January, protests began in western Kazakhstan triggered by a sharp rise in fuel costs, but reflecting broader political discontent. The almost immediate response from the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO, a Russian version of NATO) shows the close relationship between the Russian and Kazakhstan governments.
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