Many investors use controversy scores as a filter to avoid firms whose damaging behaviour has hit the headlines, from human rights violations to environmental disasters. But these scores have serious limitations, making them an inadequate tool for investors who want to manage ESG risks and have a positive impact.
Fumaroles are a good indicator of whether a volcano is active or dormant. Yet vulcanologists cannot rely on fumaroles alone to assess the probability of an eruption. The scientists need to sound deep under the crust to determine the size and pressure of the magma chamber, and their measures need to be dynamic, as magma can build up or ebb away over time. Volcanic eruptions are a complex phenomenon and can only be forecast a few days in advance at best, even by experts.
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